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Ellis, G. Hacking, I. Mind, 96, : Hawking S. The Grand Design.

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Young and T. Stenger V. Amherst N. Y: Prometheus Books, Tegmark, M. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 14, : LL The Astrophysical Journal, , : Scientific American, , : Tegmark M. Physical Review D, 73, : Weinberg, S. The first three minutes: a modern view of the origin of the universe. New York: Basic Books, Godfrey Norton, NY, has also pointed out. Here we have a far-reaching implication that goes considerably beyond the apparently trivial WAP.

Accordingly, although Barrow and Tipler conflate WAP and the implications thought to follow from it, I want to distinguish these sharply and shall refer to these broader implications as the Anthropic Philosophy. It is this philosophical viewpoint, rather than WAP itself, that I believe, despite initial impressions, stands opposed to the teleological argument and constitutes scientific naturalism's most recent answer to that argument. According to the Anthropic Philosophy, an attitude to surprise at the delicately balanced features of the universe essential to life is inappropriate; we should expect the universe to look this way.

While this does not explain the origin of those features, it shows that no explanation is necessary. Hence, to posit a divine Designer is gratuitous. Now it needs to be emphasized that what the Anthropic Philosophy does not hold, despite the sloppy statements on this head often made by scientists, is that our existence as observers explains the basic features of the universe. The answer to the question "Why is the universe isotropic? But WAP neither asserts nor implies this; rather WAP holds that we must observe the universe to possess certain features not that the universe must possess certain features and the Anthropic Philosophy says that therefore these features ought not to surprise us or cry out for explanation.


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The self-selection effect affects our observations, not the basic features of the universe itself. If the Anthropic Philosophy held that the basic features of the universe were themselves brought about by our observations, then it could be rightly dismissed as fanciful. But the Anthropic Philosophy is much more subtle: it does not try to explain why the universe has the basic features it does, but contends that no explanation is needed, since we should not be surprised at observing what we do, our observations of those basic features being restricted by our own existence as observers.

Teleological Argument

Let us concede that it follows from WAP that. We should not be surprised that we do not observe features of the universe which are incompatible with our own existence. For if the features of the universe were incompatible with our existence, we should not be here to notice it. Hence, it is not surprising that we do not observe such features. But it follows neither from WAP nor 3 that. We should not be surprised that we do observe features of the universe which are compatible with our existence. For although the object of surprise in 4 might at first blush appear to be simply the contrapositive of the object of surprise in 3 , this is mistaken.

This can be clearly seen by means of an illustration borrowed from John Leslie [16] : suppose you are dragged before a firing squad of trained marksmen, all of them with rifles aimed at your heart, to be executed. The command is given; you hear the deafening sound of the guns. And you observe that you are still alive, that all of the marksmen missed! Now while it is true that.

Since the firing squad's missing you altogether is extremely improbable, the surprise expressed in 6 is wholly appropriate, though you are not surprised that you do not observe that you are dead, since if you were dead you could not observe it. Similarly, while we should not be surprised that we do not observe features of the universe which are incompatible with our existence, it is nevertheless true that.

We should be surprised that we do observe features of the universe which are compatible with our existence,. The reason the falsity of 7 does not follow from 3 is that subimplication fails for first order predicate calculus. For 3 may be schematized as.

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It is clear that the object of surprise in 7' is not equivalent to the object of surprise in 3' ; therefore the truth of 3' does not entail the negation of 7'. Therefore, the attempt of the Anthropic Philosophy to stave off our surprise at the basic features of the universe fails. It does not after all follow from WAP that our surprise at the basic features of the universe is unwarranted or inappropriate and that they do not therefore cry out for explanation. But which features of the universe should thus surprise us? Thus, we should amend 7 to read.

We should be surprised that we do observe basic features of the universe which individually or collectively are excessively improbable and are necessary conditions of our own existence. Given the existence of this wider Universe, it is argued that all possible universes are actualized and that the WAP reveals why surprise at our being in a universe with basic features essential to life is inappropriate.

Various theories, some of them quite fantastic, have been offered for generating a World Ensemble. For example, Wheeler proposes a model of the oscillating universe in which each cycle emerges with a new set of physical laws and constants. Now it needs to be emphasized that there is no evidence for any of these theories apart from the fact of intelligent life itself.

But as John Leslie, the philosopher of science who has occupied himself most thoroughly with the Anthropic Principle, points out, any such evidence for a World Ensemble is equally evidence for a divine Designer.

Does God Exist: The Design Argument

Inflationary models not only face the problems of how to get the inflation started, how to get it to end without excess turbulence, and how to get it to allow galaxy formation, but more importantly they themselves require an extraordinary amount of fine-tuning prior to inflation, so that the appearance of design is not eluded. The Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum physics is so fantastic that philosopher of science John Earman characterizes its postulated splitting of space-time as a "miracle. Objections can be raised against each of the theories proposed for generating many worlds; but even if we conceded that a multiple universe scenario is unobjectionable, would such a move succeed in rescuing us from teleology and a cosmic Designer?

This is not at all obvious. The fundamental assumption behind the Anthropic philosopher's reasoning in this regard seems to be something along the lines of.